Drawstring bags are casual and fun. But it’s even more fun making one that mirrors your personality. Even better, you don’t need to have expert sewing skills to pull off this project. Here is a quick guide of making a drawstring bag.

What you need

  • Matching thread
  • A sewing machine
  • Two pieces of cotton fabric (cut out any size depending on the size of drawstring bag you want)
  • Iron-on adhesive
  • Craft felt
  • Safety pin
  • Iron
  • Scissors
  • Two pieces of cording

Process

Step 1

Stick the adhesive on the piece of felt

Step 2:

Print out a letter, any letter on a plain paper and then pin it to the adhesive on the felt

Step 3

Cut the letter neatly with a pair of scissors.

Step 4

Cut the piece of fabric into desired rectangular sizes.

Step 5

Remove the plan paper from the felt letter and then iron it onto any of the pieces of fabric. Makes sure it is at the centre of the fabric.

Step 6

Sew around the letter using a contrasting colour thread. Use a long stitch length for best visual results.

Step 7

With the iron press down on the front piece on three of its edges. Leave one of the shorter sides raw.

Step 8

Proceed to sew the three sides you’ve just ironed.

Step 9

Repeat the same process with the back piece of your backpack.

Step 10

Measure 2.5” from the top of the shorter raw side and mark the levels using a pen. Do this for both the back and front piece. Fold-down 0.5” and then press 2” to meet the mark you made with the pen.

Step 11

Press the fabric and sew it close to the edge of the seam.

Step 12

Repeat the above step for the back piece. At this point, you have loops through which the cording will slide through to close the pack.

Step 13

Take the front and back piece and put them together with the wrong side up. Use straight pins to hold the fabric together. As you do this, make sure that the loops at the opening line up. After, sew them together, starting from below one loop to the next.

Step 14

Turn your backpack inside out and then press it. Now all that is left to do is to thread your cording.

Step 15

To make this step easier, attach a small safety pin to the end of the cording. Start cording from the right and push the safety pin through until it emerges on the left top side. Afterwards, thread it through the back fabric.

Step 16

Both ends of the piece of cording by this point should be hanging on the right side. Even the ends and tie the two pieces with a knot.

Step 17

Repeat the 15th step with the other cording. But this time, start on the left side. When you are done, the cording should hang from the left.

Step 18

Turn your bag inside out. Put both cords inside the bag and pull each through the corner.

Step 19

Sew zig-zag stitches diagonally to hold the cords.

And there you have it – a simple process of making a beautiful drawstring bag.

Why not read How to Wear a Tote Bag?

Tote bags are one of the simplest ways of ferrying your items from point A to point B. But for some people, they are more than this – they are a fashion statement. And if you wear your tote properly, your tote will complement and accentuate your style.

Below are some tips to help you wear your tote.

Baby Pink Princess

This look will add life to your style. To pull it off, you will need to have the following clothing:

  • A boxy denim jacket. Choose one that goes well with summer skirts.
  • An oversized t-shirt.
  • A tulle summer skirt (it’s better if it is knee length).
  • Sporty sneakers. If it is summer, you are going to be taking long walks.
  • A pink cap perfect for the summer weather to piece everything together.
  • A pink canvas tote bag.
  • Cute accessories that meet your fancy like a rose gold chain or ring.

Bohemian Look

This look is ideal for summer. The free dresses are ideal for any event, including picnics, casual outings and a simple day spent at the beach. Below is a look that will make your tote pop.

  • A long white bareback dress. If it shows off your curves even better.
  • A straw hat with some cute detailing to protect your face from the sun.
  • White knickers.
  • A denim tote bag (blue). The canvas material used needs to be sturdy if it is to hold a lot of weight. Since you are going to the beach, you are bound to carry a heavy load.

This look is chic and laid back; it will most definitely make you stand out from the crowd.

The Rock Star

This is yet another great style you can pull off. The ‘rock star’ is laid back and stylish as well. It is ideal for picnics, parties and other outdoor activities. Below are all the clothing items and accessories you will need to pull this off.

  • Slouchy sweater for when it gets cold. A white or grey sweater will work just fine
  • Skinny jeans (high waist). If they are distressed even better. Navy blue and black are perfect for this look.
  • A pair of comfortable sneakers. The colours should be neutral (black or white).
  • A short-sleeved white top. If you can get a crop top, it would be even better.
  • A leather choker or a metallic ring to compliment the look

To piece all these pieces of clothing together, you need a white and black tote bag with strong straps.

Functional and casual

Another cool way to wear the tote is in a functional but casual manner. To pull this look off, you will need the following:

  • Nude flats.
  • A black hat (the cuter, the better).
  • A sweater top (grey is preferred).
  • Black boyfriend pants.

What about the tote bag? You can have a brown tote bag to carry important items as you run errands all day long.

The above are simply ideas to get you started. You can pair your tote bag with any item you feel is perfect. Tap into the fashionista in you for some more guidance.

Why not read How to Make a Tote Bag?

If you need a tote for yourself or as a gift, you should consider making one yourself. Since you are here, it’s safe to assume that you like the idea of sewing a tote bag from scratch and bringing it to life with your creativity. The only problem is you don’t know how to go about it. Luckily for you, we’ve prepared a guide with simple steps you can follow.

Prepare fabric

Picking fabric that appeals to you or that the recipient will love is probably the hardest bit of this process – mainly because there are loads of options. Any fabric will work, be it expensive satin or denim.

As you choose the fabric, determine what the tote bag will carry. If you carry books or other heavy items, you will need a sturdy fabric like corduroy or heavy cotton. But if you aren’t carrying sharp or heavy objects, light fabrics will work just fine. With sturdy fabric, you will need strong needles to sew as well as a heavy-duty sewing machine.

Once you have your fabric picked out, proceed to cut two rectangles. The final size of the tote determines the size of the rectangle. Speaking of which, the final size will be an inch smaller than the rectangles. If you want a lining for the tote, cut rectangles for the lining as well.

Lastly, mark spots on the fabric where the handles will be sewn on. To do this, fold the rectangles along the length and use a fabric pen to put two marks inside the creases. These marks will guide you to the centre of the handles.

Sew the bag

Start by sewing the hem of the top edge (these will be the opening) before you sew the body. You do this by laying the fabric with the wrong side up, folding the edge by an inch, pinning the edges and running an iron on the edge to make a crease. Repeat this process with the other rectangle. Then sew the hem on both rectangles.

Next, place the rectangles together with the wrong sides facing out. Sew the bottom and the sides but leave the top open. For the bottom corners, remember to fold before seeing perpendicularly. This creates blunt corners.

Create two handles

You will have to decide how long you want the handles to be. However, it’s a standard to have then 2-inches wide. Fold the strips in half such that their insides face outside. Crease the fold with an iron. Sew the long edges together and then place the handles on the tote and stitch away.

Decorate your tote

How you choose to do this is entirely up to you. You can screen print a design of your choice. On the other hand, you can add rhinestones to the bag to add some sparkle. For this, you will need a hot glue gun and sparkly stones. Draw a pattern using the stones for a unique result.

And there you have it, a simple method of making a beautiful tote of your choice. Remember, you are not looking for perfection on the first try.

Why not read How to Make Recycled Paper?

What happens to paper after you use it? Most of it ends up in landfills, or it is burned. If you recycle paper, you will help save the planet by reducing landfills and carbon emissions which cause global warming.

Making new paper from the old paper is simple. You will go through a process similar to that of a paper recycling mill. This involves making pulp, adding it to a specialized machine that moves the pulp through a long screen. Water is squeezed from the pulp through the screen to make paper.

But the paper you will be making today at home will be rougher and thicker than what paper mills make. Soft paper is made by passing it through different machines.

Below is all you need to make recycled paper at home.

  • An egg beater or a blender
  • A mixing bowl
  • A pan or flat dish
  • A rolling pin or round jar
  • Scrap paper, wrapping paper or newsprint
  • A piece of screen
  • Pieces of cloth and newspaper to blot the recycled paper
  • Hot water
  • Instant starch

What you should do

Step 1

Tear the newspaper, wrapping paper or scrap paper into small pieces. Add some hot water to the shredded paper

Step 2

Beat the water and paper mixture in a blender to make a pulp until it is smooth. If you will write on the paper, add starch to prevent ink from blotting the paper when you write on it.

Step 3

Pour out the pulp into your flat pan.

Step 4

Slide the screen to the bottom of your pan and then move it around until the pulp covers it evenly.

Step 5

Lift the screen from the pan slowly. Hold it steady for several minutes for excess water to drain.

Step 6

Place the screen with the pulp side up onto a blotter resting on a newspaper. Add another blotter to the pulp and a couple of newspaper sheets on top of that.

Step 7

Using a rolling pin, squeeze the remaining excess water from the pulp

Step 8

Once you are satisfied with it, remove the newspapers at the top and flip the blotter and screen carefully. Ensure the pulp doesn’t move in the process. Your pulp will need between 12 and 24 hours to dry. The actual time depends on how wet and thick the paper is. And just like that, you’ve completed your recycled paper making project. If you have any leftover pulp, do not pour it down the drain – it will clog the system. Instead, throw it in the trash.

Step 9

You can try this process with decorative elements, including glitter, dried flowers, leaves, coloured thread and other crafty material. The idea is to add flair to your paper especially if you are making notepaper or cards for a loved one.

To make thinner papers, the process will be longer and needs extra tools to pull off. Also, on the drying process, you can implement several drying methods including surface drying, exchange drying, no restraint drying, or dry on a cloth. Each of these methods will take different times to dry.

Why not read How to Make a Drawstring Bag

A couple of years back, very few people, if any, paid attention to the waste that was accumulating in their homes and landfills. As such, the problem grew so big that it attracted the attention of the authorities who are now concerned that the waste will cause chaos if nothing is done.

Luckily, a solution was found – recycling. Through this process, waste is converted into useful products. Some of the common waste materials that can be recycled include paper, cotton bags, plastic, drink cans, cardboard, tabs, trays, food cartons, and aluminium foils.

Why not also read: Facts about cotton

And although recycling has been around for quite some years now, we need to intensify our efforts to bear even more fruits in a shorter time. With that said, below are some reasons why you should recycle.

It affects the whole world

Waste management isn’t a problem in the UK alone. It’s a global problem. As such, if the waste is allowed to accumulate, we might run out of locations to bury the waste, and it might have devastating effects on our immediate environment. As it is, we have already started to feel the negative impact of global warming.

Conserve the natural resources

Plants are a limited resource. If we exert a lot of pressure, they die and are depleted with time. The best way to preserve plants and other resources is by recycling waste. For instance, recycling tons of paper annually will help save about 17 trees and many litres of water.

Reduce carbon emission

Recycling reduces carbon emissions. If the waste isn’t recycled, they end up being burnt and releasing dangerous gases that affect the climate. Planting trees can also help in reducing the levels of carbon in the air. A single tree can use up about 250 pounds from the air daily.

Save energy

Recycling saves a lot of energy. Companies that use aluminum usually save about 95% of their energy during the production of the materials in comparison to those who use raw materials.

Reduces the number of landfills

The waste disposal rate is increasing exponentially, that it is scary. This rapid increase translates into accumulation of landfills. If a solution is not found, the world will run out of space for disposing of its waste. Cities that are located next to oceans have been polluting the ocean water because their landfills are full.

Increases property value

Recycling helps to improve the value of a property. The presence of landfills reduces property value since no one likes living close to a smelly landfill. If you recycle more, the landfills will reduce in size and numbers, and the region will increase in value.

Why not also read: What are plastic bags made of?

You can make a huge difference

Decide to make a difference through recycling. If you do the math of the amount of waste your family disposes of every year, you’ll agree with us that you can make a difference in saving the planet.

Creates jobs

Most of the recycling processes are done in industries. If recycling levels increase, it only means more recycling plants will be established, which in turn leads to job creation. According to statistics, recycling creates 10x more jobs than management of landfills.

Saves money

Get in the habit of buying what you need and reusing items instead of buying new products. This will save you money and give you the satisfaction of saving the planet in the process.

Accelerates tech advancements

Currently, companies and businesses are feeling the pressure of embracing eco-friendly solutions. This has forced many to look for innovative tech to use in recycling materials. These new technologies favour mother nature.

Now that you know the benefits of recycling, it’d be best if you got in on the action as well. Tough one person can make a difference; together, we can do wonders.

Cotton is the oldest crop and is the backbone of the fashion industry. The first mention and use of cotton was in India. However, it had its breakthrough at the start of the 19th century when textile manufacturing was gaining traction. Today, more than a third of all fabrics are made from cotton, like cotton bags. Cotton cultivation is done on a large scale and in different parts of the world but mainly in the tropical regions. This is because cotton thrives in hot climates.

Why not also read: Where is Cotton Grown?

Cotton is the preferred textile in the world by many manufacturers and customers alike. But have you ever asked yourself why this is so? Well, below are a few fun facts to help you appreciate cotton even more.

Every bit of the cotton plant is used

The primary reason for growing cotton is for fibre. But other plant parts have use as well. The seeds are used as animal feeds and also produce cottonseed oil for human consumption. On the other hand, cotton plant stalks are replanted after harvesting. As such, nothing goes to waste.

Cotton Gin isn’t a drink

Gin is a term used to refer to alcoholic drinks. But in the case of cotton, gin refers to a machine used to extract cotton fibres from cotton seeds.

Cotton is made up of cellulose

The digestive system of human beings is not designed to digest cellulose. However, ruminants including horses and cattle digest it with ease courtesy of an enzyme present in their system which breaks it down to sugars.

Numbers describe yarns

The soft, thin and fine yarn has a higher number than coarse and thick cotton. This means that a 32 yarn and is finer and softer than a 16 yarn (even twice as soft).

Cotton is grown all over the world

Cotton is grown in countries including China, India, the U.S, and Pakistan. According to a study done in 2017, these countries were rated the top cotton producers in the world.

Cotton has an Arabic background

The word cotton is derived from ‘qutun’ an Arabic word. ‘Qutun’ means fine fabric. The origin of the name shouldn’t be surprising since woven fabrics made from cotton were first popular in Islamic countries.

Cotton has a large global workforce

When you purchase a cotton product, you support a global workforce ranging from cotton transporters, harvesters, planters, weavers, and others. The workforce comes from different political systems, religions and ethnicities.

Cotton has a complex genetic makeup

Of all the plants humans have domesticated for commercial use, the cotton plant has the most complicated genetic makeup. The wild cotton plant has 13 chromosome pairs, but the domesticated cotton has 26 chromosome pairs.

Cotton seeds are salt resistant

Wild cotton plants are wafted over oceans by strong winds. Because of this, the wild cotton can be found in different islands in the world, including the Galapagos and the Caribbean.

Now, wild cotton wouldn’t make it so far and over salty water bodies if its coating wasn’t resistant to saltwater which leeches out water and nutrients from the seeds. It is because other plant seeds aren’t salt-resistant that they don’t make it across oceans.

Keep the above fun facts in mind the next time you wear a soft vest, shirt or dress. Appreciate what makes cotton unique and the amount of work that goes into making the product.

In the past decade, many cities and countries have banned the use of plastic bags. They have done this to help save the planet from pollution. At first, plastic was not a big deal. But when the story of a sperm whale found with plastic in its stomach broke out, many governments and environmental preservation environments went to work to set rules and regulations regarding the use of plastic bags.

But though they are banned, one has to wonder – are cotton bags a better replacement for plastic bags? Well, below is a quick breakdown revealing how people feel about them.

First and foremost, we shall start by pointing out the fact that some people believe that plastic bags are better than cotton bags. This is because processing cotton uses a lot of energy and resources and tends to pollute the environment more. But if you move past this, many pros put cotton bags on a higher pedestal than plastic bags.

Plastic bags do not decompose

The thing with plastic is that they take aeons to decompose. The time a plastic product takes to decompose depends on its hardness and what is used to make it. Hard plastic can take up to 400 years to decompose.

While regular light plastic bags can take about 20 years to decompose. For the plastics that find their way into the ocean, when they start decomposing, they become heavier and sink to the ocean floor. Here, marine life feeds on the plastic bits. The plastic bits are harmful to aquatic life. This much has been proven by the death of the sperm whale that was washed up to the Italian beach.

Why not also read: What are Plastic Bags Made Of?

On the flip side, cotton bags decompose since they are made from a cotton plant. But in most cases, people never wait for the cotton bags to decompose since they use them for many years, unlike flimsy plastic bags that stretch and give out with time. And here’s the best part – when cotton fabric gets wet, it becomes even stronger and can carry more weight.

Cotton bags are easy to print on

Cotton bags are not only durable but easy to print on. Since it is natural fabric, it bloats the ink and retains it for a long time. On the other hand, ink on plastic bags remains on the surface. And with time, the ink fades. This means that marketing and creating a brand with printed plastic bags is not the most effective way to do it.

Back to the carbon footprint

Studies show that cotton tote bags have a carbon footprint of about 598.6lbs of carbon (IV) oxide. This is in comparison to a meagre 3.48lbs of carbon (IV) oxide by regular plastic bags. What this means is that one would have to use a cotton tote bag 172 times for every time they use a plastic bag.

And while these stats are true, they are somewhat myopic. Why? Well, they don’t factor in the aftermath of using plastic and the fact that cotton bags are durable enough to be used more than 172 times.

The effect plastic bags have on the environment is more devastating than the carbon footprint of cotton bags (which by the way, it more than makes up for through its durability).

Though some experts are pro plastic bags, some strongly defend cotton bags as well. And going by the above arguments and points, cotton bags are better than plastic bags in the long run – they decompose faster.

Today, many products are made from cotton. And given its popularity and use, many forget it’s a plant that needs to be harvested seasonally to meet the ever-growing demand for cotton products all over the world. Cotton has been grown for more than five centuries, and it’s only in the mid-1900s when its farming progressed from handpicking to horse ploughing.

But with the 21st-century cutting edge tech, farmers can grow cotton efficiently. And though cotton can take many different forms, including a shirt, t-shirt, cleansing wipe or a promotional bag, it’s essential to learn where it comes from.

Where cotton grows?

Cotton loves warm temperatures. Because of this, it is grown in some parts of the US, in India, China, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Pakistan, and Brazil. In the US, the main cotton-growing states include Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Mexico, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Alabama, Arizona, Texas, Tennessee, Kansas, Virginia, and Florida.

Why not also read: How is Cotton Made?

But because cotton needs warm temperatures, it is not naturally grown in the UK unless it’s in a greenhouse.

Now, China has more than 100,000 farmers cultivating cotton. This makes it one of the largest countries producing cotton in the country. It has more than 7,500 textile companies that collectively produce cotton cloth worth about $73 billion annually. The cultivation requires moderate rainfall and to save it from pests; there is heavy usage of fertilizers and pesticides.

India closely follows China’s cotton volume production. India produces an excess of 6,423 thousand metric tons of cotton annually. This is because northern India has a favourable cotton climate with between 25 and 35 degrees Celsius. Cotton in India is processed in bulk using modern equipment and technology, depending on the desired quality.

The US comes in third, and it uses modern machinery. Cotton is harvested using machines that pick cotton bolls without damaging the plant. The favourable climate in the regions described above gives a massive boost to cotton production in the area.

When is cotton planted?

The dates are entirely dependent on the climate of an area. But usually, cotton seeds are planted in April when the soil is warm enough for seeds to germinate. However, there are different seed varieties made to reduce maturity time.

Until the cotton is harvested, farmers are required to keep the fields free from weeds, diseases and insects. Weeds tend to choke plants and diseases, and insects devastate crops. Healthy plants flower with yellow-white flowers, which then turn red. The flower later dies and leaves a boll. These bolls burst open and expose the cotton to the sun for drying.

Processing cotton

Back when farmers handpicked cotton bolls, one farmer could pick 200 pounds of cotton daily. But today, courtesy of tech advancements, the same 200 pounds can be picked within 90 seconds. The harvested cotton is then made into modules. One cotton module weighs about 20,000 pounds.

The cotton modules are then transported to textile mills where actual processing happens. Here lint is separated from cotton seeds and leaves, grass, and other trash are removed from the bottom part of the module. Processing continues until cotton usable by the end consumer is made.

Regardless of where it’s grown, the quality of cotton is almost similar. The cotton bags are strong and durable and are easy to print your unique designs.

Reading this, you are probably unsure of whether you should buy a polyester or cotton shirt. Or maybe a blend of the two? Now, although the polyester fabric has been around for more than 50 years, its usage continues to grow. Also, cotton usage doesn’t show any signs of reducing any time soon. They are two formidable fabrics with a large ‘fan base.’ To help you make a choice today, below is how the two fabrics compare.

Cotton

Cotton is thought of as a natural and versatile fabric. It is made from cotton plants and is used to make soft and fluffy bedding, apparel, tarps, towels, and threads. The cultivation and use of cotton date back to a couple of centuries go.

Why not also read: Facts about Cotton

In comparison to polyester, cotton has a more supple and softer feel. And because of this, there are lesser chances of it irritating the skin. Moreover, cotton s breathable. This quality further enhances the comfort of cotton. If you have sensitive skin or are buying a product for your baby, cotton is the best option. This is especially when it comes to washcloths, towels, sheets, underwear, and pillowcases.

Polyester

This is a petroleum-based fabric that was made by British and American chemists in the 1940s. In 1951, it was marketed as Dacron. Today, more than 70 years later, polyester is used in making clothing, electrical insulation, recording tapes, carpeting, drapes, and other home furnishings.

Polyester, along with other synthetic fibres results in the creation of products that are resistant to wind, water, and other environmental factors. In this light, they tramp cotton and other fibres derived from plants. Quick question, have you ever seen a raincoat labelled ‘100% cotton’?

Durability, shrinkage, wrinkling

Polyester tends to be more durable and also less prone to shrinking, wrinkling and fading. However, it is prone to pulls and runs. Also, for individuals working in industries where cleanliness is paramount, polyester is more beneficial since it can be washed often and resistant to harsh chemicals.

With that said, we cannot refute the fact that heavy cotton fabric, including jeans, has the same level of durability and resistance to detergents.

A combination of polyester and cotton yields a fabric that is durable and soft – the fabric has the best of both worlds (depending on the ratio of the mixture). Products made from this fabric tend to retain their colour and shape and aren’t prone to shrinking or wrinkling even when they are washed with hot or warm water. The cotton gives the product extra comfort.

Generally, the blended fabric is more affordable and lasts longer than pure cotton products.

Additional properties

Polyester doesn’t absorb as much water as cotton, and as such it dries faster. Some polyester garments are usually designed to wick moisture – this attribute is useful for athletes and those who take part in activities done in cold weather, including skiing and snowboarding.

The fact that polyester is less absorbent than cotton also means that it is more stain resistant. It also doesn’t need to be washed with hot water.

Environmental impact

When it comes to saving the planet, the two have their pros and cons. Though most people are almost always against polyester since it’s a petroleum-based fibre, cotton has its fair share of cons as well. Cotton is a pesticide dependent cash drop. Statistics show that it uses ¼ of all pesticides manufactured. It is also water-intensive.

But on the other hand, cotton is biodegradable, which means that old clothing or fabric will breakdown into natural products.

With this information, you can choose what type of shirt you need. Remember to factor in where, when, and how you intend to use the product. This will help you determine the fabric qualities that are important to you.

Before we start, we should clarify this – cotton is not made, it’s grown. The steps we describe below are cotton processing or manufacturing. Now, of all the machinery invented in the 18th century, the one that stood out the most and made the most significant impact was the cotton gin. The ‘gin’ changed cotton processing in the US and around the globe. Back then, the US produced most of the cotton used in the world. Texas grew 25% of all US cotton. But today, India and China are the leading cotton producers in the world.

A lot of work goes into cotton processing. It’s as such difficult to even think that many of the steps were done by hand. In the 18th century, most of the work was done by slaves. But today, the process has been efficiently mechanised to improve the overall quality and speed.

Cotton extraction

Once cotton seeds have been planted, they take about three months to flower. The flowers start with white petals which later change colour to yellow, then pink, red and finally they fall off. When this happens, a cotton ball is left behind. Inside the boll are cotton seeds and fibres. With time, the ball turns brown, and the fibre inside continues to grow until the boll bursts open and exposes the white cotton.

Why not also read: What is Brushed Cotton?

Different types of stripping machines are used to remove cotton from the main plant. They toss the cotton balls into huge baskets and later pack them into modules to help retain their quality.

Ginning

Large trucks are used to transport the modules to cotton gins. The gin pulls the fibres apart and removes unwanted twigs, dirt, leaves and debris. The fibre is then separated from cotton seeds by the gin teeth and saws. The fibre is used in making fabric and the seeds used to make animal feeds, cottonseed oil and paper products.

At this stage, the cotton is called lint. It is packed into bales weighing 500 pounds. From the bales, samples are taken to determine fibre length, colour and strength. These features help to determine the quality, class and the selling price. At this stage, local buyers buy and sell these bales to mills for processing into fabrics.

Purifying and scouring

At the mills, the cotton is purified further. Also, sodium hydroxide is added to saturate the cotton fibres. This whole process is conducted inside a kier. Once the fibre is soft, hydrogen peroxide solution is used to bleach the cotton. The amount of time the bleaching process takes is dependent on how white the cotton needs to be.

Drying

At the previous stage, the cotton can be used as swabs or as hygiene products for women. However, for products that require fine cotton, the cotton goes through another refining process. The fibres are pulled apart, straightened and laid side by side for drying. The results are slivers which are used to make fabrics and other materials.

Finishing

Whether the cotton is used after bleaching or after reopening, they have to be finished first. At this stage, a lubricant is added to the fibres for finishing. The finished cotton is bought by different companies that make non-woven materials and different types of fabric.

The whole cotton manufacturing process is exciting and achieves different classes of cotton. But one thing is for sure; the more cotton is processed, the finer it gets.